Cosan/USA is proud to announce that in September of 2016 we will join forces with the University of North Carolina/Chapel Hill in performing five clinical studies.
Molecular Hydrogen Long-Term Health Benefits
Antioxidant Studies

1.Akhavan, O., et al., Hydrogen-rich water for green reduction of graphene oxide suspensions. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2015. 40(16): p. 5553-5560.

 

2.Berjak, P., et al., Cathodic amelioration of the adverse effects of oxidative stress accompanying procedures necessary for cryopreservation of embryonic axes of recalcitrant-seeded species. Seed Science Research, 2011. 21(3): p. 187-203.

 

3.Hanaoka, K., Antioxidant effects of reduced water produced by electrolysis of sodium chloride solutions. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 2001. 31(12): p. 1307-1313.

 

4.Hanaoka, K., et al., The mechanism of the enhanced antioxidant effects against superoxide anion radicals of reduced water produced by electrolysis. Biophysical Chemistry, 2004. 107(1): p. 71-82.

 

5.Hiraoka, A., et al., In Vitro Physicochemical Properties of Neutral Aqueous Solution Systems (Water Products as Drinks) Containing Hydrogen Gas, 2-Carboxyethyl Germanium Sesquioxide, and Platinum Nanocolloid as Additives. Journal of Health Science, 2010. 56(2): p. 167-174.

 

6.Hiraoka, A., et al., Studies on the properties and real existence of aqueous solution systems that are assumed to have antioxidant activities by the action of “active hydrogen”‘. Journal of Health Science, 2004. 50(5): p. 456-465.

 

7.Kato, S., D. Matsuoka, and N. Miwa, Antioxidant activities of nano-bubble hydrogen-dissolved water assessed by ESR and 2, 2′-bipyridyl methods. Materials Science and Engineering:, 2015. C 53: p. 7-10.

 

8.Lee, M.Y., et al., Electrolyzed-reduced water protects against oxidative damage to DNA, RNA, and protein. Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2006. 135(2): p. 133-44.

 

9.Ohsawa, I., et al., Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Nat Med, 2007. 13(6): p. 688-694.

 

10.Ohta, S., Molecular hydrogen as a novel antioxidant: overview of the advantages of hydrogen for medical applications. Methods Enzymol, 2015. 555: p. 289-317.

 

11.Park, E.J., et al., Protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water on the paraquat-induced oxidative damage of human lymphocyte DNA. Journal of the Korean Society for Applied

Biological Chemistry, 2005. 48(2): p. 155-160.

 

12.Park, S.K., et al., Electrolyzed-reduced water confers increased resistance to environmental stresses. Molecular & Cellular Toxicology, 2012. 8(3): p. 241-247.

 

13.Park, S.K. and S.K. Park, Electrolyzed-reduced water increases resistance to oxidative stress, fertility, and lifespan via insulin/IGF-1-like signal in C. elegans. Biol Res, 2013. 46(2): p. 147-52.

 

14.Penders, J., R. Kissner, and W.H. Koppenol, ONOOH does not react with H2. Free Radic Biol Med, 2014.

 

15.Qian, L., et al., Administration of hydrogen-rich saline protects mice from lethal acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). Transplantation, 2013. 95(5): p. 658-62.

 

16.Shi, Q.H., et al., Hydrogen Therapy Reduces Oxidative Stress-associated Risks Following Acute and Chronic Exposure to High-altitude Environment. Biomed Environ Sci, 2015. 28(3): p. 239-41.

 

17.Shirahata, S., et al., Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 1997. 234(1): p. 269-274.

 

18.Yan, H., et al., Mechanism of the lifespan extension of Caenorhabditis elegans by electrolyzed reduced water–participation of Pt nanoparticles. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 2011. 75(7): p. 1295-9.

 

19.Yan, H., et al., electrolyzed reduced water prolongs caenorhabditis elegans lifespan, in Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects. 2010, Springer Netherlands. p. 289-293.

 

20.Yan, H.X., et al., Extension of the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans by the Use of Electrolyzed Reduced Water. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 2010. 74(10): p. 2011-2015.

 

21.Yanagihara, T., et al., Electrolyzed hydrogen-saturated water for drinking use elicits an antioxidative effect: a feeding test with rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 2005. 69(10): p. 1985-7.

Bones Studies

22.Cai, W.W., et al., Treatment with hydrogen molecule alleviates TNFalpha-induced cell injury in osteoblast. Mol Cell Biochem, 2013. 373(1-2): p. 1-9.

 

23.Fujita, R., et al., Effect of molecular hydrogen saturated alkaline electrolyzed water on disuse muscle atrophy in gastrocnemius muscle. Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 2011. 30(5): p. 195-201.

 

24.Guo, J.D., et al., Hydrogen water consumption prevents osteopenia in ovariectomized rats. Br J Pharmacol, 2013. 168(6): p. 1412-20.

 

25.Hanaoka, T., et al., Molecular hydrogen protects chondrocytes from oxidative stress and indirectly alters gene expressions through reducing peroxynitrite derived from nitric oxide. Medical Gas Research, 2011. 1(1): p. 18.

 

26.Itoh, T., et al., Molecular hydrogen inhibits lipopolysaccharide/interferon gamma-induced nitric oxide production through modulation of signal transduction in macrophages. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2011. 411(1): p. 143-9.

 

27.Kawasaki, H., J.J. Guan, and K. Tamama, Hydrogen gas treatment prolongs replicative lifespan of bone marrow multipotential stromal cells in vitro while preserving differentiation and paracrine potentials. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2010. 397(3): p. 608-613.

 

28.Kubota, M., et al., Hydrogen and N-acetyl-L-cysteine rescue oxidative stress-induced angiogenesis in a mouse corneal alkali-burn model. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 2011. 52(1): p. 427-33.

 

29.Lekic, T., et al., Protective effect of hydrogen gas therapy after germinal matrix hemorrhage in neonatal rats. Acta Neurochir Suppl, 2011. 111: p. 237-41.

 

30.Li, D.Z., et al., Treatment with hydrogen molecules prevents RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation associated with inhibition of ROS formation and inactivation of MAPK, AKT and NF-kappa B pathways in murine RAW264.7 cells. J Bone Miner Metab, 2013.

 

31.Sun, Y., et al., Treatment of hydrogen molecule abates oxidative stress and alleviates bone loss induced by modeled microgravity in rats. Osteoporos Int, 2013. 24(3): p. 969-78.

 

32.Takeuchi, S., et al., Hydrogen may inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation: an ex vivo and in vivo study. Internal Medicine, 2012. 51(11): p. 1309-13.

 

33.Xu, Z., et al., Anti-inflammation effects of hydrogen saline in LPS activated macrophages and carrageenan induced paw oedema. J Inflamm (Lond), 2012. 9: p. 2.

 

34.Yuan, L., et al., Administration of hydrogen-rich saline in mice with allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Med Sci Monit, 2015. 21: p. 749-54.

Brain Studies

35.Bari, F., et al., Inhalation of Hydrogen Gas Protects Cerebrovascular Reactivity Against Moderate but Not Severe Perinatal Hypoxic Injury in Newborn Piglets. Stroke, 2010. 41(4): p. E323-E323.

 

36.Cui, Y., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates neuronal ischemia-reperfusion injury by protecting mitochondrial function in rats. J Surg Res, 2014.

 

37.Dohi, K., et al., Molecular Hydrogen in Drinking Water Protects against Neurodegenerative Changes Induced by Traumatic Brain Injury. PLoS One, 2014. 9(9): p. e108034.

 

38.Domoki, F., et al., Hydrogen is Neuroprotective and Preserves Cerebrovascular Reactivity in Asphyxiated Newborn Pigs. Pediatric Research, 2010. 68(5): p. 387-392.

 

39.Eckermann, J.M., et al., Hydrogen is neuroprotective against surgically induced brain injury. Medical Gas Research, 2011. 1(1): p. 7.

 

40.Feng, Y., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline prevents early neurovascular dysfunction resulting from inhibition of oxidative stress in STZ-diabetic rats. Curr Eye Res, 2013. 38(3): p. 396-404.

 

41.Fu, Y., et al., Molecular hydrogen is protective against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostriatal degeneration in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease. Neuroscience Letters, 2009. 453: p. 81–85.

 

42.Fujita, K., et al., Hydrogen in drinking water reduces dopaminergic neuronal loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. PLoS One, 2009. 4(9): p. e7247.

 

43.Gu, Y., et al., Drinking Hydrogen Water Ameliorated Cognitive Impairment in Senescence-Accelerated Mice. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 2010. 46(3): p. 269-276.

44.Han, L., et al., Hydrogen-rich water protects against ischemic brain injury in rats by regulating calcium buffering proteins. Brain Res, 2015.

 

45.Hong, Y., et al., Beneficial effect of hydrogen-rich saline on cerebral vasospasm after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats. J Neurosci Res, 2012. 90(8): p. 1670-80.

 

46.Hong, Y., et al., Neuroprotective effect of hydrogen-rich saline against neurologic damage and apoptosis in early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage: possible role of the Akt/GSK3beta signaling pathway. PLoS One, 2014. 9(4): p. e96212.

 

47.Hou, Z., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline protects against oxidative damage and cognitive deficits after mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Res Bull, 2012. 88(6): p. 560-5.

 

48.Huang, G., et al., The neuroprotective effects of intraperitoneal injection of hydrogen in rabbits with cardiac arrest. Resuscitation, 2013. 84(5): p. 690-5.

 

49.Hugyecz, M., et al., Hydrogen supplemented air inhalation reduces changes of prooxidant enzyme and gap junction protein levels after transient global cerebral ischemia in the rat hippocampus. Brain Research, 2011. 1404: p. 31-8.

 

50.Ito, M., et al., Drinking hydrogen water and intermittent hydrogen gas exposure, but not lactulose or continuous hydrogen gas exposure, prevent 6-hydorxydopamine-induced Parkinson’s disease in rats. Med Gas Res, 2012. 2(1): p. 15.

51.Ji, X., et al., Beneficial effects of hydrogen gas in a rat model of traumatic brain injury via reducing oxidative stress. Brain Research, 2010. 1354: p. 196-205.

 

52.Ji, X., et al., Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline in a rat model of traumatic brain injury via reducing oxidative stress. Journal of Surgical Research, 2012. 178(1): p. e9-16.

 

53.Kashiwagi, T., et al., Suppression of Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis of Neuronal Cells by Electrolyzed-Reduced Water. Animal Cell Technology Meets Genomics, 2005. 2: p. 257-260.

 

54.Kashiwagi, T., et al., Electrochemically reduced water protects neural cells from oxidative damage. Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2014. 2014: p. 869121.

 

55.Kobayashi, H., et al., Effects of Hydrogen Gas in a Mouse Cold Induced Brain Injury Model. Journal of Neurotrauma, 2011. 28(5): p. A64-A64.

 

56.Kuroki, C., et al., Neuroprotective effects of hydrogen gas on brain in three types of stress models: alpha P-31-NMR study. Neuroscience Research, 2009. 65: p. S124-S124.

 

57.Kuroki, C., et al., Neuroprotective effects of hydrogen gas on brain in three types of stress models: A P-31-NMR and ESR study. Neuroscience Research, 2011. 71: p. E406-E406.

 

58.Li, J., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline improves memory function in a rat model of amyloid-beta-induced Alzheimer’s disease by reduction of oxidative stress. Brain Res, 2010. 1328: p. 152-161.

 

59.Liu, F.T., et al., Molecular Hydrogen Suppresses Reactive Astrogliosis Related to Oxidative Injury during Spinal Cord Injury in Rats. CNS Neurosci Ther, 2014.

 

60.Liu, L., et al., Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates brain injury in mice with cecal ligation and puncture via inhibiting neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis. Brain Res, 2014. 1589: p. 78-92.

 

61.Liu, W., et al., Protective effects of hydrogen on fetal brain injury during maternal hypoxia. Acta Neurochir Suppl, 2011. 111: p. 307-11.

 

62.Manaenko, A., et al., Hydrogen inhalation is neuroprotective and improves functional outcomes in mice after intracerebral hemorrhage. Acta Neurochir Suppl, 2011. 111: p. 179-83.

 

63.Manaenko, A., et al., Hydrogen inhalation ameliorated mast cell-mediated brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. Critical Care Medicine, 2013. 41(5): p. 1266-75.

 

64.Mano, Y., et al., Maternal molecular hydrogen administration ameliorates rat fetal hippocampal damage caused by in utero ischemia-reperfusion. Free Radic Biol Med, 2014. 69: p. 324-30.

 

65.Matsumoto, A., et al., Oral ‘hydrogen water’ induces neuroprotective ghrelin secretion in mice. Sci Rep, 2013. 3: p. 3273.

 

66.Mei, K., et al., Hydrogen protects rats from dermatitis caused by local radiation. J Dermatolog Treat, 2014. 25(2): p. 182-8.

 

67.Nagata, K., et al., Consumption of Molecular Hydrogen Prevents the Stress-Induced Impairments in Hippocampus-Dependent Learning Tasks during Chronic Physical Restraint in Mice. Neuropsychopharmacology, 2009. 34(2): p. 501-508.

 

68.Olah, O., et al., Delayed neurovascular dysfunction is alleviated by hydrogen in asphyxiated newborn pigs. Neonatology, 2013. 104(2): p. 79-86.

 

69.Ono, H., et al., Improved brain MRI indices in the acute brain stem infarct sites treated with hydroxyl radical scavengers, Edaravone and hydrogen, as compared to Edaravone alone. A non-controlled study. Medical Gas Research, 2011. 1(1): p. 12.

 

70.Ostojic, S.M., Targeting molecular hydrogen to mitochondria: Barriers and gateways. Pharmacol Res, 2015. 94: p. 51-3. (brain)

 

71.Pshenichnyuk, S.A. and A.S. Komolov, Dissociative Electron Attachment to Resveratrol as a Likely Pathway for Generation of the H2 Antioxidant Species Inside Mitochondria. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 2015. 6(7): p. 1104-1110.

 

72.Sato, Y., et al., Hydrogen-rich pure water prevents superoxide formation in brain slices of vitamin C-depleted SMP30/GNL knockout mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2008. 375(3): p. 346-350.

 

73.Shen, L., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline is cerebroprotective in a rat model of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Neurochemical Research, 2011. 36(8): p. 1501-11.

 

74.Shen, M.H., et al., Neuroprotective effect of hydrogen-rich saline in acute carbon monoxide poisoning. CNS Neurosci Ther, 2013. 19(5): p. 361-3.

 

75.Spulber, S., et al., Molecular hydrogen reduces LPS-induced neuroinflammation and promotes recovery from sickness behaviour in mice. PLoS One, 2012. 7(7): p. e42078.

 

76.Sun, Q., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline reduces delayed neurologic sequelae in experimental carbon monoxide toxicity. Critical Care Medicine, 2011. 39(4): p. 765-9.

 

77.Takeuchi, S., et al., Hydrogen improves neurological function through attenuation of blood-brain barrier disruption in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats. BMC Neurosci, 2015. 16(1): p. 22. (brain)

 

78.Ueda, Y., A. Nakajima, and T. Oikawa, Hydrogen-Related Enhancement of In Vivo Antioxidant Ability in the Brain of Rats Fed Coral Calcium Hydride. Neurochemical Research, 2010. 35(10): p. 1510-1515.

 

79.Wang, C., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline reduces oxidative stress and inflammation by inhibit of JNK and NF-kappaB activation in a rat model of amyloid-beta-induced Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroscience Letters, 2011. 491(2): p. 127-32.

 

80.Wang, T., et al., Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water ameliorated chlorpyrifos-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 2014.

 

81.Wang, W., et al., Hydrogen rich saline reduces immune-mediated brain injury in rats with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Neurological Research, 2012. 34(10): p. 1007-15.

82.Xie, F. and X. Ma, Molecular Hydrogen and its Potential Application in Therapy of Brain Disorders. Brain Disord Ther, 2014: p. 2.

 

83.Yan, H., et al., The neuroprotective effects of electrolyzed reduced water and its model water containing molecular hydrogen and Pt nanoparticles. BMC Proc, 2011. 5 Suppl 8: p. P69.

 

84.Yamada, T., et al., Hydrogen supplementation of preservation solution improves viability of osteochondral grafts. ScientificWorldJournal, 2014. 2014: p. 109876. (bones)

 

85.Yokoi, I., Neuroprotective effects of hydrogen gas on brain in three types of stress models: a P-31 NMR and ESR study. Neuroscience Research, 2010. 68: p. E320-E320.

 

86.Zhan, Y., et al., Hydrogen gas ameliorates oxidative stress in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats. Critical Care Medicine, 2012. 40(4): p. 1291-6.

 

87.Zhang, L., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline controls remifentanil-induced hypernociception and NMDA receptor NR1 subunit membrane trafficking through GSK-3beta in the DRG in rats. Brain Res Bull, 2014. 106C: p. 47-55.

 

88.Zhou, J., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline reverses oxidative stress, cognitive impairment, and mortality in rats submitted to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture. Journal of Surgical Research, 2012. 178(1): p. 390-400.

 

89.Zhuang, Z., et al., Nuclear factor-kappaB/Bcl-XL pathway is involved in the protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline on the brain following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rabbits. J Neurosci Res, 2013. 91(12): p. 1599-608.

 

90.Zhuang, Z., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline alleviates early brain injury via reducing oxidative stress and brain edema following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rabbits. BMC Neurosci, 2012. 13: p. 47.

Cancer Studies

91.Akio Kagawa, K.K., Masayuki Mizumoto, Yutaka Tagawa, Yoichi Masiko, Influence of Hydrogen Discharged from Palladium Base Hydrogen Storage Alloys on Cancer Cells. Materials Science Forum, 2012. 706: p. 520-525.

91.Asada, R., et al., Antitumor effects of nano-bubble hydrogen-dissolved water are enhanced by coexistent platinum colloid and the combined hyperthermia with apoptosis-like cell death. Oncol Rep, 2010. 24(6): p. 1463-70.

 

92.Chen, Y., et al., On the antitumor properties of biomedical magnesium metal. Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 2015. 3(5): p. 849-858.

 

93.Dole, M., F.R. Wilson, and W.P. Fife, Hyperbaric hydrogen therapy: a possible treatment for cancer. Science, 1975. 190(4210): p. 152-4.

 

94.Jun, Y., et al., Suppression of invasion of cancer cells and angiogenesis by electrolyzed reduced water. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Animal, 2004. 40: p. 79A-79A.

 

95.Kinjo, T., et al., Suppressive effects of electrochemically reduced water on matrix metalloproteinase-2 activities and in vitro invasion of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. Cytotechnology, 2012. 64(3): p. 357-371.

 

96.Komatsu, T., Katakura, Y., Teruya, K., Otsubo, K., Morisawa, S., & and S. Shirahata, Electrolyzed reduced water induces differentiation in K-562 human leukemia cells. Animal cell technology: Basic & applied aspects, 2003: p. 387-391.

 

97.LEE, K.-J., et al., Anticancer Effect of Alkaline Reduced Water. J Int Soc Life Inf Sci, 2004. 22(2): p. 302-305.

 

98.Matsushita, T., et al., Investigation of protective effect of hydrogen-rich water against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging. Jpn J Radiol, 2011. 29(7): p. 503-12.

 

99.Matsuzaki, M., et al., Mechanism of Cancer Cell Death Induced by Hydrogen Discharged from Palladium Base Hydrogen Storage Alloy, in Materials Science and Chemical Engineering 2013. p. 284-290.

 

100.Motoishi, A., et al., Influence of Active Hydrogen Discharged from Palladium-Nickel Alloy Powder on Biological Cells. Advanced Materials Research, 2013. 669: p. 273-278.

 

101.Nakanishi, K., et al., growth suppression of HL60 and L6 cells by atomic hydrogen, in Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects, . 2010, Springer Netherlands. p. 323-325.

 

102.Nakashima-Kamimura, N., et al., Molecular hydrogen alleviates nephrotoxicity induced by an anti-cancer drug cisplatin without compromising anti-tumor activity in mice. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol, 2009.

 

103.Nan, M., C. Yangmei, and Y. Bangcheng, Magnesium metal-A potential biomaterial with antibone cancer properties. J Biomed Mater Res A, 2014. 102(8): p. 2644-51.

 

104.Nishikawa, H., et al., Suppression of two-stage cell transformation by electrolyzed reduced water containing platinum nanoparticles, in Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects. 2006, Springer Netherlands. p. 113-119.

 

105.Nishikawa, R., et al., Electrolyzed Reduced Water Supplemented with Platinum Nanoparticles Suppresses Promotion of Two-stage Cell Transformation. Cytotechnology, 2005. 47(1-3): p. 97-105.

 

106.Nishikawa, R., et al., Suppression of two-stage cell transformation by electrolyzed reduced water/platinum nanocolloids. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Animal, 2004. 40: p. 79A-79A.

 

107.Roberts, B.J., et al., Response of five established solid transplantable mouse tumors and one mouse leukemia to hyperbaric hydrogen. Cancer Treat Rep, 1978. 62(7): p. 1077-9.

108.Runtuwene, J., et al., Hydrogen-water enhances 5-fluorouracil-induced inhibition of colon cancer. PeerJ, 2015. 3: p. e859.

 

109.Shirahata, S.K., K. Kusumoto, M. Gotoh, K. Teruya, K. Otsubo, J. S. Morisawa, H. Hayashi, K. Katakura, Electrolyzed Reduced Water Which Can Scavenge Active Oxygen Species Suppresses Cell Growth and Regulates Gene Expression of Animal Cells. New Developments and New Applications in Animal Cell Technology, 2002: p. 93-96.

 

110.Saitoh, Y., et al., Neutral pH Hydrogen-Enriched Electrolyzed Water Achieves Tumor-Preferential Clonal Growth Inhibition Over Normal Cells and Tumor Invasion Inhibition Concurrently With Intracellular Oxidant Repression. Oncology Research, 2008. 17(6): p. 247-255.

 

111.Saitoh, Y., et al., Platinum nanocolloid-supplemented hydrogen dissolved water inhibits growth of human tongue carcinoma cells preferentially over normal cells. Exp Oncol, 2009. 31(3): p. 156-62.

 

112.Tsai, C.F., et al., Enhanced induction of mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells due to electrolyzed-reduced water and glutathione. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 2009. 73(2): p. 280-7.

 

113.Ye, J., et al., Inhibitory effect of electrolyzed reduced water on tumor angiogenesis. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2008. 31(1): p. 19-26.

Eye and Ear Studies

114.Chen, L., et al., Hydrogen-Saturated Saline Protects Intensive Narrow Band Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Guinea Pigs through an Antioxidant Effect. PLoS One, 2014. 9(6): p. e100774.

 

115.Feng, M., et al., Protective effect of saturated hydrogen saline against blue light-induced retinal damage in rats. Int J Ophthalmol, 2012. 5(2): p. 151-7.

 

116.Huang, L., et al., Hydrogen saline treatment attenuates hyperoxia-induced retinopathy by inhibition of oxidative stress and reduction of VEGF expression. Ophthalmic Res, 2012. 47(3): p. 122-7.

 

117.Kashiwagi, T., et al., Suppression of glutamate-induced neural cell death by electrolyzed-reduced water, in Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects. 2004, Springer Netherlands. p. 105-109.

 

118.Kikkawa, Y.S., et al., Hydrogen protects auditory hair cells from free radicals. Neuroreport, 2009. 20(7): p. 689-94.

 

119.Kurioka, T., et al., Inhaled hydrogen gas therapy for prevention of noise-induced hearing loss through reducing reactive oxygen species. Neurosci Res, 2014.

 

120.Lin, Y., et al., Hydrogen in drinking water attenuates noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs. Neuroscience Letters, 2011. 487(1): p. 12-16.

 

121.Moossavi, A., F. Bagheri, and H.R. Farkhani, Capabilities of hydrogen Molecules for use in the prevention and treatment in noise induced hearing loss. Rehabilitation Medicine 2014. 2(4).

 

122.Oharazawa, H., et al., Protection of the Retina by Rapid Diffusion of Hydrogen: Administration of Hydrogen-Loaded Eye Drops in Retinal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2010. 51(1): p. 487-492.

 

123.Qu, J., et al., Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates ouabain-induced auditory neuropathy in gerbils. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 2012. 33(4): p. 445-451.

 

124.Qu, J., et al., Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates cisplatin-induced ototoxicity via reducing oxidative stress. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 2012. 76(1): p. 111-5.

 

125.Sun, J.C., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline promotes survival of retinal ganglion cells in a rat model of optic nerve crush. PLoS One, 2014. 9(6): p. e99299.

 

126.Taura, A., et al., Hydrogen protects vestibular hair cells from free radicals. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 2010. 130: p. 95-100.

 

127.Tian, L., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline ameliorates the retina against light-induced damage in rats. Med Gas Res, 2013. 3(1): p. 19.

 

128.Xiao, X., et al., Protective effects of hydrogen saline on diabetic retinopathy in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2012. 28(1): p. 76-82.

 

129.Yang, C.X., H. Yan, and T.B. Ding, Hydrogen saline prevents selenite-induced cataract in rats. Molecular Vision, 2013. 19: p. 1684-93.

 

130.Yokota, T., et al., Protective effect of molecular hydrogen against oxidative stress caused by peroxynitrite derived from nitric oxide in rat retina. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol, 2015.

 

131.Zhou, Y., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline alleviates experimental noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs. Neuroscience, 2012. 209: p. 47-53.

H2 Chemistry and Physics Studies
  1. Aoki, K., et al., Is hydrogen gas in water present as bubbles or hydrated form? Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 2012. 668: p. 83-89.

 

133.Black, J.H., Chemistry and cosmology. Faraday Discussions, 2006. 133: p. 27-32; discussion 83-102, 449-52.

 

134.Buxton, G.V., et al., Critical view of rate constants for reactions of hydrated electrons, hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl radicals (•OH/•OH–) in aqueous solution. J Phys Chem Ref Data, 1988. 17: p. 513-886.

 

135.Choi, W.K., Investigations of Quantitative Reducibility Determination and Reducibility Variations of Neutral Hydrogen-Dissolved Water by Electrochemical Analysis. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci, 2014. 9: p. 7266-7276.

 

136.Donald, W.A., et al., Directly relating gas-phase cluster measurements to solution-phase hydrolysis, the absolute standard hydrogen electrode potential, and the absolute proton solvation energy. Chemistry, 2009. 15(24): p. 5926-34.

 

137.Ehrenfreund, P., et al., Astrophysical and astrochemical insights into the origin of life. Reports on Progress in Physics, 2002. 65(10): p. 1427-1487.

 

138.Hamasaki, T., et al., Kinetic analysis of superoxide anion radical-scavenging and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities of platinum nanoparticles. Langmuir, 2008. 24(14): p. 7354-64.

 

139.Huber, C. and G. Wachtershauser, alpha-Hydroxy and alpha-amino acids under possible Hadean, volcanic origin-of-life conditions. Science, 2006. 314(5799): p. 630-2.

140.Jain, I.P., Hydrogen the fuel for 21st century. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy,

  1. 34(17): p. 7368-7378.

 

141.Kikuchi, K., et al., Characteristics of hydrogen nanobubbles in solutions obtained with water electrolysis. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 2007. 600(2): p. 303-310.

 

142.Kikuchi, K., et al., Hydrogen particles and supersaturation in alkaline water from an Alkali-Ion-Water electrolyzer. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 2001. 506(1): p. 22-27.

 

143.Kikuchi, K., et al., Hydrogen concentration in water from an Alkali-Ion-Water electrolyzer having a platinum-electroplated titanium electrode. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 2001. 31(12): p. 1301-1306.

 

144.Klunder, K., et al., A Study of Dissolved Gas Dynamics in Mixed Stream Electrolyzed Water. Electrochemistry, 2012. 80(8): p. 574-577.

 

145.Kuhlmann, J., et al., Fast escape of hydrogen from gas cavities around corroding magnesium implants. Acta Biomater, 2012.

 

146.Liu, W., X. Sun, and S. Ohta, Hydrogen Element and Hydrogen Gas. Hydrogen Molecular Biology and Medicine. 2015: Springer Netherlands.

 

147.Ramachandran, R. and R.K. Menon, An overview of industrial uses of hydrogen. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 1998. 23(7): p. 593-598.

 

148.Renault, J.P., R. Vuilleumier, and S. Pommeret, Hydrated electron production by reaction of hydrogen atoms with hydroxide ions: A first-principles molecular dynamics study. Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 2008. 112(30): p. 7027-7034.

 

149.Sabo, D., et al., Molecular studies of the structural properties of hydrogen gas in bulk water. Molecular Simulation, 2006. 32(3-4): p. 269-278.

 

150.Seo, T., R. Kurokawa, and B. Sato, A convenient method for determining the concentration of hydrogen in water: use of methylene blue with colloidal platinum. Medical Gas Research, 2012. 2: p. 1.

 

151.Takenouchi, T., U. Sato, and Y. Nishio, Behavior of Hydrogen Nanobubbles Generated in Alkaline Electrolyzed Water. Electrochemistry, 2009. 77(7): p. 521-523.

 

152.Tanaka, Y., et al., Dissolution of hydrogen and the ratio of the dissolved hydrogen content to the produced hydrogen in electrolyzed water using SPE water electrolyzer. Electrochimica Acta, 2003. 48(27): p. 4013-4019.

 

153.Zeng, K. and D.K. Zhang, Recent progress in alkaline water electrolysis for hydrogen production and applications. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 2010. 36(3): p. 307-326.

 

154.Zheng, Y.F., X.N. Gu, and F. Witte., Biodegradable metals. Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports, 2014. 77: p. 1-34.

H2 From Bacteria Studies

155.Carter, E.A., et al., Use of hydrogen gas (H2) analysis to assess intestinal absorption. Studies in normal rats and in rats infected with the nematode, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Gastroenterology, 1981. 81(6): p. 1091-7.

 

156.Chen, X., et al., Lactulose: an effective preventive and therapeutic option for ischemic stroke by production of hydrogen. Medical Gas Research, 2012. 2: p. 3.

 

157.Chen, X., et al., Lactulose Mediates Suppression of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colon Inflammation by Increasing Hydrogen Production. Dig Dis Sci, 2013.

 

158.Chen, X., et al., Lactulose: an indirect antioxidant ameliorating inflammatory bowel disease by increasing hydrogen production. Medical Hypotheses, 2011. 76(3): p. 325-7.

 

159.Christl, S.U., et al., Production, metabolism, and excretion of hydrogen in the large intestine. Gastroenterology, 1992. 102(4 Pt 1): p. 1269-77.

 

160.Kanazuru, T., et al., Role of Hydrogen Generation by Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Oral Cavity. Journal of Microbiology, 2010. 48(6): p. 778-783.

 

161.Kayar, S.R., et al., Hydrogen Gas Is Not Oxidized by Mammalian-Tissues under Hyperbaric Conditions. Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine, 1994. 21(3): p. 265-275.

 

162.Lee, S.H. and B.K. Choi, Antibacterial effect of electrolyzed water on oral bacteria. J Microbiol, 2006. 44(4): p. 417-22.

 

163.Levitt, M.D., Production and Excretion of Hydrogen Gas in Man. New England Journal of Medicine, 1969. 281(3): p. 122-&.

 

164.Liu, C., et al., Estimation of the hydrogen concentration in rat tissue using an airtight tube following the administration of hydrogen via various routes. Sci Rep, 2014. 4: p. 5485.

 

165.Oku, T. and S. Nakamura, Comparison of digestibility and breath hydrogen gas excretion of fructo-oligosaccharide, galactosyl-sucrose, and isomalto-oligosaccharide in healthy human subjects. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003. 57(9): p. 1150-1156.

 

166.Rizkalla, S.W., et al., Chronic consumption of fresh but not heated yogurt improves breath-hydrogen status and short-chain fatty acid profiles: a controlled study in healthy men with or without lactose maldigestion. Am J Clin Nutr, 2000. 72(6): p. 1474-9.

 

167.Sack, D.A. and C.B. Stephensen, Liberation of hydrogen from gastric acid following administration of oral magnesium. Dig Dis Sci, 1985. 30(12): p. 1127-33.

 

168.Shimouchi, A., et al., Molecular hydrogen consumption in the human body during the inhalation of hydrogen gas. Adv Exp Med Biol, 2013. 789: p. 315-21.

 

169.Shimouchi, A., et al., Estimation of molecular hydrogen consumption in the human whole body after the ingestion of hydrogen-rich water. Oxygen Transport to Tissue Xxi, 2012. 737: p. 245-50.

 

170.Shimouchi, A., et al., Effect of Dietary Turmeric on Breath Hydrogen. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 2009. 54(8): p. 1725-1729.

 

171.Shimouchi, A., et al., Breath Hydrogen Produced by Ingestion of Commercial Hydrogen Water and Milk. Biomarker Insights, 2009. 4: p. 27-32.

 

172.Sone, Y., et al., Everyday breath hydrogen excretion profile in Japanese young female students. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci, 2000. 19(5): p. 229-37.

 

173.Strocchi, A. and M.D. Levitt, Maintaining intestinal H2 balance: credit the colonic bacteria. Gastroenterology, 1992. 102(4 Pt 1): p. 1424-6.

 

174.Suzuki, Y., et al., Are the effects of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors on cardiovascular events related to elevated levels of hydrogen gas in the gastrointestinal tract? FEBS Letters, 2009. 583(13): p. 2157-9.

 

175.Tanikawa, R., et al., Relationship between Exhaled Hydrogen and Human Neutrophil Function in the Japanese General Population. Hirosaki Medical Journal, 2015. 65: p. 138-146.

 

176.Xie, K.L., et al., Hydrogen gas improves survival rate and organ damage in zymosan-induced generalized inflammation model. Shock, 2010. 34(5): p. 495-501.

 

177.Zhai, X., et al., Lactulose ameliorates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats by inducing hydrogen by activating Nrf2 expression. Free Radic Biol Med, 2013. 65: p. 731-41.

Human Studies

261.Aoki, K., et al., Pilot study: Effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on muscle fatigue caused by acute exercise in elite athletes. Medical Gas Research, 2012. 2(1): p. 12.

 

262.Bittner, A.C., et al., Intra-Individual Ergonomics (I2E): Performance Effects of Ultra-Negative-Ion Water. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting SAGE Journals, 2007. 55(26): p. 1617-1621.

 

263.Drid, P., et al., Hydrogen-Rich Water in Judo Training. . Psycho-Physiological, Spiritual and Ethical Aspects), 2013: p. 129.

 

264.Fujiyama, Y. and T. Kitahora, Alkaline electrolytic water (alkali ions water) for drinking water in medicine. Mizu no Tokusei to Atarashii Riyo Gijutsu, Enu-Ti-Esu, Tokyo, 2004: p. 348-457.

 

265.Hiraoka, A., et al., Effects of drinking a water product with anti-oxidant activities in vitro on the blood levels of biomarker substances for the oxidative stress. Journal of Health Science, 2006. 52(6): p. 817-820.

 

266.Huang, K.C., et al., Electrolysed-reduced water dialysate improves T-cell damage in end-stage renal disease patients with chronic haemodialysis. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 2010. 25(8): p. 2730-2737.

 

267.Huang, K.C., et al., Electrolyzed-reduced water reduced hemodialysis-induced erythrocyte impairment in end-stage renal disease patients. Kidney Int, 2006. 70(2): p. 391-8.

 

268.Huang, K.C., et al., Reduced hemodialysis-induced oxidative stress in end-stage renal disease patients by electrolyzed reduced water. Kidney Int, 2003. 64(2): p. 704-14.

 

269.Ishibashi, T., et al., Consumption of water containing a high concentration of molecular hydrogen reduces oxidative stress and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an open-label pilot study. Medical Gas Research, 2012. 2(1): p. 27.

 

270.Ishibashi, T., et al., Therapeutic efficacy of infused molecular hydrogen in saline on rheumatoid arthritis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Int Immunopharmacol, 2014. 21(2): p. 468-473.

 

271.Ito, M., et al., Open-label trial and randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of hydrogen-enriched water for mitochondrial and inflammatory myopathies. Medical Gas Research, 2011. 1(1): p. 24.

 

272.Kajiyama, S., et al., Supplementation of hydrogen-rich water improves lipid and glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Nutrition Research, 2008. 28: p. 137–143.

 

273.Kang, K.-M., et al., Effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on the quality of life of patients treated with radiotherapy for liver tumors. Medical Gas Research, 2011. 1: p. 11.

 

274.Koyama K, T.Y., Saihara Y, Ando D, Goto Y, Katayama A, Effect of hydrogen saturated alkaline electrolyzed water on urinary oxidative stress markers after an acute exercise: A randomized controlled trial. Anti-aging Med, 2008. 4: p. 117-122.

 

275.Lee, K.J., et al., Effect of electrolyzed-reduced water: in vivo and in vitro examination and clinical trials, in The 3rd Asia Pacific Conference on Evidence-Based Medicine. 2004: Hong Kong.

276.Li, Q., et al., Hydrogen water intake via tube-feeding for patients with pressure ulcer and its reconstructive effects on normal human skin cells in vitro. Med Gas Res, 2013. 3(1): p. 20.

 

277.Lu, K.C., et al., Electrolyzed reduced water attenuates hemodialysis-induced mononuclear cells apoptosis in end-stage renal disease patients. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 2006. 21: p. 200-201.

 

278.Matsumoto, S., T. Ueda, and H. Kakizaki, Effect of supplementation with hydrogen-rich water in patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. Urology, 2013. 81(2): p. 226-30.

 

279.Nagatani, K., et al., Safety of intravenous administration of hydrogen-enriched fluid in patients with acute cerebral ischemia: initial clinical studies. Med Gas Res, 2013. 3: p. 13.

 

280.Nakao, A., et al., Effectiveness of Hydrogen Rich Water on Antioxidant Status of Subjects with Potential Metabolic Syndrome-An Open Label Pilot Study. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 2010. 46(2): p. 140-149.

 

281.Nakayama, M., et al., Biological Effects of Electrolyzed Water in Hemodialysis. Nephron Clinical Practice, 2009. 112(1): p. C9-C15.

 

282.Nakayama, M., et al., A novel bioactive haemodialysis system using dissolved dihydrogen (H-2) produced by water electrolysis: a clinical trial. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 2010. 25(9): p. 3026-3033.

 

283.Ono, H., et al., A basic study on molecular hydrogen (H2) inhalation in acute cerebral ischemia patients for safety check with physiological parameters and measurement of blood H2 level. Medical Gas Research, 2012. 2(1): p. 21.

 

284.Ono, H., et al., Hydrogen(H2) treatment for acute erythymatous skin diseases. A report of 4 patients with safety data and a non-controlled feasibility study with H2 concentration measurement on two volunteers. Medical Gas Research, 2012. 2(1): p. 14.

 

285.Ostojic, S.M., Molecular Hydrogen in Sports Medicine: New Therapeutic Perspectives. Int J Sports Med, 2014. (human)

 

286.Ostojic, S.M. and M.D. Stojanovic, Hydrogen-rich water affected blood alkalinity in physically active men. Res Sports Med, 2014. 22(1): p. 49-60.

 

287.Ostojić, S.M., et al., Drinks with alkaline negative oxidative reduction potential improve exercise performance in physically active men and women: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial of efficacy and safety. Serbian journal of sports sciences, 2011. 5(1-4): p. 83-89.

 

288.Ostojic, S.M., et al., Effectiveness of oral and topical hydrogen for sports-related soft tissue injuries. Postgrad Med, 2014. 126(5): p. 187-95.

289.Shin, M.H., et al., Atomic Hydrogen Surrounded by Water Molecules, H(H2O)m, Modulates Basal and UV-Induced Gene Expressions in Human Skin In Vivo. PLoS One, 2013. 8(4): p. e61696.

 

290.Song, G., et al., Hydrogen-rich water decreases serum LDL-cholesterol levels and improves HDL function in patients with potential metabolic syndrome. Journal of Lipid Research, 2013. 54(7): p. 1884-93.

 

291.Takeuchi, S., et al., Effects of intravenous infusion of hydrogen-rich fluid combined with intra-cisternal infusion of magnesium sulfate in severe aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. BMC Neurol, 2014. 14(1): p. 176.

 

292.Tashiro, H., et al., Clinical evaluation of alkali-ionized water for chronic diarrhea-placebo-controlled double blind study. Digestion & Absorption, 2000. 23: p. 52-56.

 

293.Terawaki, H., et al., Transperitoneal administration of dissolved hydrogen for peritoneal dialysis patients: a novel approach to suppress oxidative stress in the peritoneal cavity. Medical Gas Research, 2013. 3(1): p. 14.

 

294.Xia, C., et al., Effect of hydrogen-rich water on oxidative stress, liver function, and viral load in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Clin Transl Sci, 2013. 6(5): p. 372-5.

 

295.Yang, E.J., et al., A Clinical Trial of Orally Administered Alkaline Reduced Water. 대한의생명과학회지, 2007. 13(2): p. 83-89.

 

296.Yeung, L.K., et al., Effect of electrolyzed reduced water hemodialysis on peripheral lymphocyte intracellular cytokine expression. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 2006. 21: p. 204-204.

 

297.Yoritaka, A., et al., Pilot study of H(2) therapy in Parkinson’s disease: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Movement Disorders, 2013.

Ischemia/Reperfusion Injuries Studies

298.Cai, J., et al., Hydrogen therapy reduces apoptosis in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia rat model. Neurosci Lett, 2008. 441(2): p. 167-172.

 

299.Cai, J.M., et al., Neuroprotective effects of hydrogen saline in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia rat model. Brain Res, 2009. 1256: p. 129-137.

 

300.Chen, H., et al., The effects of hydrogen-rich saline on the contractile and structural changes of intestine induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Journal of Surgical Research, 2011. 167(2): p. 316-22.

 

301.Fukuda, K., et al., Inhalation of hydrogen gas suppresses hepatic injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion through reducing oxidative stress. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2007. 361(3): p. 670-674.

 

302.Ge, P., et al., Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates cognitive impairment in transient cerebral ischemia via inhibition of oxidative stress. Neurological Research, 2012. 34(2): p. 187-94.

 

303.Han, L., et al., Hydrogen-rich water protects against ischemic brain injury in rats by regulating calcium buffering proteins. Brain Res, 2015.

 

304.Hayashida, K., et al., Inhalation of hydrogen gas protects the heart from ischemic reperfusion injury. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2008. 51(10): p. A375-A375.

 

305.Hayashida, K., et al., Inhalation of hydrogen gas reduces infarct size in the rat model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Journal of Cardiac Failure, 2008. 14(7): p. S168-S168.

 

306.Huang, Y., et al., Beneficial effects of hydrogen gas against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury in rabbits. Brain Research, 2011. 1378: p. 125-136.

 

307.Huang, T., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates ischemia-reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle. J Surg Res, 2015. 194(2): p. 471-80.

 

308.Ji, Q., et al., The effect of hydrogen-rich saline on the brain of rats with transient ischemia. Journal of Surgical Research, 2011. 168(1): p. e95-e101.

 

309.Jiang, D., et al., Protective effects of hydrogen rich saline solution on experimental testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. J Urol, 2012. 187(6): p. 2249-53.

 

310.Kawamura, T., et al., Inhaled Hydrogen Gas Therapy for Prevention of Lung Transplant-Induced Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats. Transplantation, 2010. 90(12): p. 1344-1351.

 

311.Kuroki, C., et al., Neuroprotective Effects of Hydrogen Gas on Brain in Ischemia-Reperfusion Model: A P-31-Nmr Study. Journal of Physiological Sciences, 2009. 59: p. 371-371.

 

312.Kuroki, C., et al., Neuroprotective effects of hydrogen gas on brain in hypoxic stress model and ischemia-reperfusion model: A P-31 NMR study. Neuroscience Research, 2008. 61: p. S274-S274.

 

313.Lee, J.W., et al., Inhaled hydrogen gas therapy for prevention of testicular ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 2012. 47(4): p. 736-742.

 

314.Li, H., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates lung ischemia-reperfusion injury in rabbits. Journal of Surgical Research, 2012. 174(1): p. e11-6.

 

315.Li, J., et al., Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline in a rat model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia via reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. Brain Research, 2012. 1486: p. 103-11.

 

316.Liu, Y., et al., Hydrogen saline offers neuroprotection by reducing oxidative stress in a focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat model. Medical Gas Research, 2011. 1(1): p. 15.

 

317.Liu, Y.Q., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates skin ischemia/reperfusion induced apoptosis via regulating Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and ASK-1/JNK pathway. Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, 2015.

 

318.Liu, R., et al., Lung inflation with hydrogen during the cold ischemia phase decreases lung graft injury in rats. Exp Biol Med (Maywood), 2015.

 

319.Luo, Z.L., et al., Hydrogen-Rich Saline Protects against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Grafts after Pancreas Transplantations by Reducing Oxidative Stress in Rats. Mediators Inflamm, 2015. 2015: p. 281985.

320.Mao, Y.F., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline reduces lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2009. 381(4): p. 602-5.

 

321.Matchett, G.A., et al., Hydrogen gas is ineffective in moderate and severe neonatal hypoxia-ischemia rat models. Brain Research, 2009. 1259: p. 90-7.

 

322.Nagatani, K., et al., Effect of Hydrogen Gas on the Survival Rate of Mice Following Global Cerebral Ischemia. Shock 37(6):645-652, 2012 Reply. Shock, 2012. 38(4): p. 444-445.

 

323.Nagatani, K., et al., Effect of Hydrogen Gas on the Survival Rate of Mice Following Global Cerebral Ischemia. Shock, 2012. 37(6): p. 645-652.

 

324.Nakao, A., et al., Amelioration of rat cardiac cold ischemia/reperfusion injury with inhaled hydrogen or carbon monoxide, or both. The Journal of heart and lung transplantation : the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation, 2010. 29(5): p. 544-53.

 

325.Noda, K., et al., A novel method of preserving cardiac grafts using a hydrogen-rich water bath. Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, 2013. 32(2): p. 241-50.

 

326.Shingu, C., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline solution attenuates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Journal of Anesthesia, 2010. 24(4): p. 569-574.

 

327.Sun, Q., et al., Hydrogen-Rich Saline Protects Myocardium Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 2009. 234(10): p. 1212-1219.

 

328.Tan, M., et al., Hydrogen as additive of HTK solution fortifies myocardial preservation in grafts with prolonged cold ischemia. International Journal of Cardiology, 2013. 167(2): p. 383-90.

 

329.Wang, F., et al., Hydrogen-Rich Saline Protects Against Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats. Journal of Surgical Research, 2011. 167(2): p. e339-44.

330.Yonamine, R., et al., Coadministration of hydrogen gas as part of the carrier gas mixture suppresses neuronal apoptosis and subsequent behavioral deficits caused by neonatal exposure to sevoflurane in mice. Anesthesiology, 2013. 118(1): p. 105-13.

 

331.Zhang, J., et al., Effect of hydrogen gas on the survival rate of mice following global cerebral ischemia (Shock 37(6), 645-652, 2012). Shock, 2012. 38(4): p. 444; author reply 444-5.

 

332.Zhang, Y., et al., Anti-inflammatory effect of hydrogen-rich saline in a rat model of regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. International Journal of Cardiology, 2011. 148(1): p. 91-5.

 

333.Zhao, L., et al., Protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline on ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat skin flap. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B, 2013. 14(5): p. 382-91.

 

334.Zheng, X., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline protects against intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Free Radic Res, 2009. 43(5): p. 478-84.

 

335.Zhou, H., et al., Hydrogen inhalation decreases lung graft injury in brain-dead donor rats. Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, 2013. 32(2): p. 251-8.

 

336.Zhou, L., et al., Beneficial effects of hydrogen-rich saline against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury in rabbits. Brain Research, 2013. 1517: p. 150-60.

 

337.Zhu, W.J., et al., Intake of water with high levels of dissolved hydrogen (H2) suppresses ischemia-induced cardio-renal injury in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation, 2011. 26(7): p. 2112-8.

Kidney Studies

338.Abe, T., et al., Hydrogen-rich University of Wisconsin solution attenuates renal cold ischemia-reperfusion injury. Transplantation, 2012. 94(1): p. 14-21.

 

339.Cardinal, J.S., et al., Oral hydrogen water prevents chronic allograft nephropathy in rats. Kidney International, 2010. 77(2): p. 101-9.

 

340.Homma, K., et al., Inhalation of Hydrogen Gas Is Beneficial for Preventing Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Rats. Nephron Exp Nephrol, 2015.

 

341.Gu, H., et al., Pretreatment with hydrogen-rich saline reduces the damage caused by glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury in rats. J Surg Res, 2014. 188(1): p. 243-9.

 

342.Katakura, M., et al., Hydrogen-rich water inhibits glucose and alpha,beta -dicarbonyl compound-induced reactive oxygen species production in the SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rat kidney. Medical Gas Research, 2012. 2(1): p. 18.

 

343.Kato, S., et al., Colloidal platinum in hydrogen-rich water exhibits radical-scavenging activity and improves blood fluidity. J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2012. 12(5): p. 4019-27.

 

344.Kitamura, A., et al., Experimental verification of protective effect of hydrogen-rich water against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using dynamic contrast-enhanced CT. British Journal of Radiology, 2010. 83(990): p. 509-514.

 

345.Liu, W., et al., A novel fluid resuscitation protocol: provide more protection on acute kidney injury during septic shock in rats. Int J Clin Exp Med, 2014. 7(4): p. 919-26.

 

346.Matsushita, T., et al., Protective effect of hydrogen-rich water against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using blood oxygenation level-dependent MR imaging. Magn Reson Med Sci, 2011. 10(3): p. 169-76.

 

347.Nakayama, M., et al., Less-oxidative hemodialysis solution rendered by cathode-side application of electrolyzed water. Hemodial Int, 2007. 11(3): p. 322-7.

 

348.Ohaski, Y., et al., Electrolyzed water reduces urinary protein excretion in the streptozotocin induced diabetic Dahl salt sensitive rats. The FASEB Journal, 2008. 22: p. 947.17.

 

349.Terawaki, H., et al., Effect of a hydrogen (H2)-enriched solution on the albumin redox of hemodialysis patients. Hemodial Int, 2014. 18(2): p. 459-66.

 

350.Terawaki, H., et al., Successful treatment of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis by hemodialysis and peritoneal lavage using dialysate containing dissolved hydrogen. Perit Dial Int, 2015. 35(1): p. 107-12.

 

351.Xin, H.G., et al., Consumption of hydrogen-rich water alleviates renal injury in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Mol Cell Biochem, 2014. 392(1-2): p. 117-24.

 

352.Zhu, W.J., et al., Amelioration of cardio-renal injury with aging in dahl salt-sensitive rats by H2-enriched electrolyzed water. Med Gas Res, 2013. 3(1): p. 26.

Liver Studies

353.Gharib, B., et al., Anti-inflammatory properties of molecular hydrogen: investigation on parasite-induced liver inflammation. C R Acad Sci III, 2001. 324(8): p. 719-724.

 

354.Itoh, T., et al., Molecular hydrogen suppresses FcepsilonRI-mediated signal transduction and prevents degranulation of mast cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2009. 389(4): p. 651-6.

 

355.Kajiya, M., et al., Hydrogen from intestinal bacteria is protective for Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2009. 386(2): p. 316-21.

 

356.Koyama, Y., et al., Effects of Oral Intake of Hydrogen Water on Liver Fibrogenesis in Mice. Hepatol Res, 2013.

 

357.Koyama, Y., et al., Effects of oral intake of hydrogen water on liver fibrogenesis in mice. Hepatol Res, 2014. 44(6): p. 663-677.

 

358.Lee, P.C., et al., Concomitant inhibition of oxidative stress and angiogenesis by chronic hydrogen-rich saline and N-acetylcysteine treatments improves systemic, splanchnic and hepatic hemodynamics of cirrhotic rats. Hepatol Res, 2014.

 

359.Liu, G.D., et al., Molecular hydrogen regulates the expression of miR-9, miR-21 and miR-199 in LPS-activated retinal microglia cells. Int J Ophthalmol, 2013. 6(3): p. 280-5.

 

360.Liu, Q., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline protects against liver injury in rats with obstructive jaundice. Liver International, 2010. 30(7): p. 958-968.

 

361.Liu, Y., et al., Protective effects of hydrogen enriched saline on liver ischemia reperfusion injury by reducing oxidative stress and HMGB1 release. BMC Gastroenterol, 2014. 14: p. 12.

 

362.Matsuno, N., et al., Beneficial effects of hydrogen gas on porcine liver reperfusion injury with use of total vascular exclusion and active venous bypass. Transplant Proc, 2014. 46(4): p. 1104-6.

 

363.Nishimura, N., et al., Pectin and high-amylose maize starch increase caecal hydrogen production and relieve hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Br J Nutr, 2012. 107(4): p. 485-92.

 

364.Park, S.K., et al., Electrolyzed-reduced water inhibits acute ethanol-induced hangovers in Sprague-Dawley rats. Biomed Res, 2009. 30(5): p. 263-9.

 

365.Shen, M.H., et al., Hydrogen as a novel and effective treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Medical Hypotheses, 2010. 75(2): p. 235-237.

 

366.Sun, H., et al., The protective role of hydrogen-rich saline in experimental liver injury in mice. Journal of Hepatology, 2011. 54(3): p. 471-80.

 

367.Tan, Y.C., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates postoperative liver failure after major hepatectomy in rats. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol, 2014. 38(3): p. 337-45.

 

368.Tange, Y., S. Takesawa, and S. Yoshitake, Dialysate with high dissolved hydrogen facilitates dissociation of indoxyl sulfate from albumin. Nephrourol Mon, 2015. 7(2): p. e26847.

 

369.Tsai, C.F., et al., Hepatoprotective effect of electrolyzed reduced water against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice. Food Chem Toxicol, 2009. 47(8): p. 2031-6.

 

370.Wang, W., et al., Effects of hydrogen-rich saline on rats with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Journal of Emergency Medicine, 2013. 44(1): p. 107-15.

 

371.Xiang, L., et al., Inhalation of hydrogen gas reduces liver injury during major hepatotectomy in swine. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 2012. 18(37): p. 5197-5204.

 

372.Xu, X.F. and J. Zhang, Saturated hydrogen saline attenuates endotoxin-induced acute liver dysfunction in rats. Physiol Res, 2013. 62(4): p. 395-403.

 

373.Zhang, C.B., et al., Hydrogen gas inhalation protects against liver ischemia/reperfusion injury by activating the NF-κB signaling pathway. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 2015. 9(6): p. 2114-2120.

 

374.Zhang, J.Y., et al., Hydrogen-rich water protects against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. World J Gastroenterol, 2015. 21(14): p. 4195-209.

Lung Studies

375.Du, Z., et al., Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline in uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock. Journal of Surgical Research, 2014. In press.

 

376.Fang, Y., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline protects against acute lung injury induced by extensive burn in rat model. Journal of Burn Care and Research, 2011. 32(3): p. e82-91.

 

377.Haam, S., et al., The effects of hydrogen gas inhalation during ex vivo lung perfusion on donor lungs obtained after cardiac deathdagger. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg, 2015.

 

378.Huang, C.S., et al., Hydrogen inhalation ameliorates ventilator-induced lung injury. Critical Care, 2010. 14(6): p. R234.

 

379.Huang, C.S., et al., Hydrogen inhalation reduced epithelial apoptosis in ventilator-induced lung injury via a mechanism involving nuclear factor-kappa B activation. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2011. 408(2): p. 253-8.

 

380.Kawamura, T., et al., Hydrogen gas reduces hyperoxic lung injury via the Nrf2 pathway in vivo. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol, 2013. 304(10): p. L646-56.

 

381.Li, S., et al., Long-term treatment of hydrogen-rich saline abates testicular oxidative stress induced by nicotine in mice. J Assist Reprod Genet, 2014. 31(1): p. 109-14.

 

382.Liang, C., et al., [Effect of hydrogen inhalation on p38 MAPK activation in rats with lipopolysaccharide- induced acute lung injury]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao, 2012. 32(8): p. 1211-3.

 

383.Liu, S., et al., Consumption of hydrogen water reduces paraquat-induced acute lung injury in rats. Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology, 2011. 2011: p. 305086.

 

384.Liu, R., et al., Lung inflation with hydrogen during the cold ischemia phase decreases lung graft injury in rats. Exp Biol Med (Maywood), 2015.

 

385.Liu, S.L., et al., Hydrogen Therapy may be a Novel and Effective Treatment for COPD. Front Pharmacol, 2011. 2: p. 19.

 

386.Liu, H., et al., Combination therapy with nitric oxide and molecular hydrogen in a murine model of acute lung injury. Shock, 2015. 43(5): p. 504-11.

 

387.Liu, W., et al., Combined early fluid resuscitation and hydrogen inhalation attenuates lung and intestine injury. World J Gastroenterol, 2013. 19(4): p. 492-502.

 

388.Ning, Y., et al., Attenuation of cigarette smoke-induced airway mucus production by hydrogen-rich saline in rats. PLoS One, 2013. 8(12): p. e83429.

 

389.Noda, K., et al., Hydrogen Preconditioning During Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion Improves the Quality of Lung Grafts in Rats. Transplantation 2014. ??

 

390.Qiu, X., et al., Hydrogen inhalation ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice. Int Immunopharmacol, 2011. 11(12): p. 2130-7.

 

391.Qiu, X.C., et al., [Effect of hydrogen-rich saline on blood pressure and antioxidant ability of lung tissue in scalded rats following delayed resuscitation]. Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi, 2010. 26(6): p. 435-8.

 

392.Sato, C., et al., Effects of hydrogen water on paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. The Kitasato medical journal 2015. 45(1): p. 9-16.

 

393.Shi, J., et al., Hydrogen saline is protective for acute lung ischaemia/reperfusion injuries in rats. Heart Lung Circ, 2012. 21(9): p. 556-63.

 

394.Sun, Q.A., et al., Hydrogen-Rich Saline Provides Protection Against Hyperoxic Lung Injury. Journal of Surgical Research, 2011. 165(1): p. E43-E49.

 

395.Tanaka, Y., et al., Profiling molecular changes induced by hydrogen treatment of lung allografts prior to procurement. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2012. 425(4): p. 873-9.

 

396.Terasaki, Y., et al., Hydrogen therapy attenuates irradiation-induced lung damage by reducing oxidative stress. American Journal of Physiology – Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, 2011. 301(4): p. L415-26.

 

397.Tomofuji, T., et al., Effects of hydrogen-rich water on aging periodontal tissues in rats. Sci Rep, 2014. 4: p. 5534.

 

398.Xiao, M., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline reduces airway remodeling via inactivation of NF-kappaB in a murine model of asthma. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 2013. 17(8): p. 1033-43.

 

399.Xie, K., et al., Molecular hydrogen ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice through reducing inflammation and apoptosis. Shock, 2012. 37(5): p. 548-55.

 

400.Zhai, Y., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline ameliorates lung injury associated with cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis in rats. Exp Mol Pathol, 2015. 98(2): p. 268-276.

 

401.Zhang, J., et al., Effect of hydrogen-rich water on acute peritonitis of rat models. Int Immunopharmacol, 2014. 21(1): p. 94-101.

 

402.Zheng, J., et al., Saturated hydrogen saline protects the lung against oxygen toxicity. Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine, 2010. 37(3): p. 185-192.

Metabolic Syndrome Studies

402.Abe, M., et al., Suppressive Effect of ERW on Lipid Peroxidation and Plasma Triglyceride Level, in Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects. S. Netherlands, Editor. 2010. p. 315-321.

 

403.Amitani, H., et al., Hydrogen Improves Glycemic Control in Type1 Diabetic Animal Model by Promoting Glucose Uptake into Skeletal Muscle. PLoS One, 2013. 8(1).

 

404.Baek, D.-H., Antibacterial Activity of Hydrogen-rich Water Against Oral Bacteria. 2013.

 

405.Chao, Y.C. and M.T. Chiang, Effect of alkaline reduced water on erythrocyte oxidative status and plasma lipids of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Taiwanese Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Science, 2009. 47(2): p. 71-72.

 

406.Chen, C.H., et al., Hydrogen Gas Reduced Acute Hyperglycemia-Enhanced Hemorrhagic Transformation in a Focal Ischemia Rat Model. Neuroscience, 2010. 169(1): p. 402-414.

 

407.Chen, Y., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia by inhibiting reactive oxygen species production and inactivating the Ras-ERK1/2-MEK1/2 and Akt pathways. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 2013. 31(3): p. 597-606.

 

408.Chiasson, J.L., et al., Acarbose treatment and the risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension in patients with impaired glucose tolerance: the STOP-NIDDM trial. JAMA, 2003. 290(4): p. 486-94.

 

409.Dan, J., et al., Effect of mineral induced alkaline reduced water on sprague-dawley rats fed on a high fat diet. J. Exp. Biomed. Sci., 2006. 12: p. 1-7.

 

410.Ekuni, D., et al., Hydrogen-rich water prevents lipid deposition in the descending aorta in a rat periodontitis model. Arch Oral Biol, 2012. 57(12): p. 1615-22.

 

411.Fan, M., et al., Protective Effects of Hydrogen-Rich Saline Against Erectile Dysfunction in a Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rat Model. J Urol, 2012.

 

412.Fan, M., et al., Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline against erectile dysfunction in a streptozotocin induced diabetic rat model. Journal of Urology, 2013. 190(1): p. 350-6.

 

413.GU, H.Y., et al., Anti-oxidation Effect and Anti Type 2 Diabetic Effect in Active Hydrogen Water. Medicine and Biology, 2006. 150(11): p. 384-392.

 

415.Hamaskai, T., et al., The suppressive effect of electrolyzed reduced water on lipid peroxidation. Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects, 2003. 13: p. 381-385.

 

416.Hashimoto, M., et al., Effects of hydrogen-rich water on abnormalities in a SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rat – a metabolic syndrome rat model. Medical Gas Research, 2011. 1(1): p. 26.

 

417.He, B., et al., Protection of oral hydrogen water as an antioxidant on pulmonary hypertension. Mol Biol Rep, 2013. 40(9): p. 5513-21.

 

418.Ignacio, R.M., et al., Anti-obesity effect of alkaline reduced water in high fat-fed obese mice. Biol Pharm Bull, 2013. 36(7): p. 1052-9.

 

419.Iio, A., et al., Molecular hydrogen attenuates fatty acid uptake and lipid accumulation through downregulating CD36 expression in HepG2 cells. Medical Gas Research, 2013. 3(1): p. 6.

 

420.Jiang, H., et al., Hydrogen-rich medium suppresses the generation of reactive oxygen species, elevates the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and inhibits advanced glycation end product-induced apoptosis. Int J Mol Med, 2013. 31(6): p. 1381-7.

 

421.Jin, D., et al., Anti-diabetic effect of alkaline-reduced water on OLETF rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 2006. 70(1): p. 31-7.

 

422.Kamimura, N., et al., Molecular Hydrogen Improves Obesity and Diabetes by Inducing Hepatic FGF21 and Stimulating Energy Metabolism in db/db Mice. Obesity, 2011.

 

423.Kawai, D., et al., Hydrogen-rich water prevents progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and accompanying hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. Hepatology, 2012. 56(3): p. 912-21.

 

424.Kim, H.-W., Alkaline Reduced Water produced by UMQ showed Anti-cancer and Anti-diabetic effect. published online at http://www.korea-water.com/images/e_q.pdf 2004.

 

425.Kim, M.J. and H.K. Kim, Anti-diabetic effects of electrolyzed reduced water in streptozotocin-induced and genetic diabetic mice. Life Sci, 2006. 79(24): p. 2288-92.

 

426.Kim, M.J., et al., Preservative effect of electrolyzed reduced water on pancreatic beta-cell mass in diabetic db/db mice. Biol Pharm Bull, 2007. 30(2): p. 234-6.

 

427.Li, Y., et al., Protective mechanism of reduced water against alloxan-induced pancreatic beta-cell damage: Scavenging effect against reactive oxygen species. Cytotechnology, 2002. 40(1-3): p. 139-49.

 

428.Li, Y.-P., Teruya, K., Katakura, Y., Kabayama, S., Otsubo, K.,Morisawa, S., et al, Effect of reduced water on the apoptotic cell death triggered by oxidative stress in pancreatic b HIT-T15 cell. Animal cell technology meets genomics, 2005: p. 121-124.

 

429.Li, Y., et al., Suppressive effects of electrolyzed reduced water on alloxan-induced apoptosis and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Cytotechnology, 2011. 63(2): p. 119-31.

 

430.Nakai, Y., et al., Hepatic oxidoreduction-related genes are upregulated by administration of hydrogen-saturated drinking water. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 2011. 75(4): p. 774-6.

 

431.Nelson, D., et al., Effect of electrolyzed water intake on lifespan of autoimmune disease prone mice. Faseb Journal, 1998. 12(5): p. A794-A794.

 

432.Nishioka, S., et al., Effect of hydrogen gas inhalation on lipid metabolism and left ventricular remodeling induced by intermittent hypoxia in mice. European Heart Journal, 2012. 33: p. 794-794.

 

433.Oda, M., et al., Electrolyzed and natural reduced water exhibit insulin-like activity on glucose uptake into muscle cells and adipocytes. Animal Cell Technology: Products from Cells, Cells as Products, 2000: p. 425-427.

 

434.Ohsawa, I., et al., Consumption of hydrogen water prevents atherosclerosis in apoliporotein E knockout mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2008. 377(4): p. 1195-8.

 

435.Shirahata, S., Anti-oxidative water improves diabetes. 2001.

 

436.Shirahata, S., et al., Anti-diabetes effect of water containing hydrogen molecule and Pt nanoparticles. BMC Proc, 2011. 5 Suppl 8: p. P18.

 

437.Song, G., et al., H2 inhibits TNF-alpha-induced lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 expression by inhibiting nuclear factor kappaB activation in endothelial cells. Biotechnology Letters, 2011. 33(9): p. 1715-22.

 

438.Song, G., et al., Hydrogen decreases athero-susceptibility in apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and aorta of apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Atherosclerosis, 2012. 221(1): p. 55-65.

 

439.Tanabe, H., et al., Suppressive Effect of High Hydrogen Generating High Amylose Cornstarch on Subacute Hepatic Ischemia-reperfusion Injury in Rats. Biosci Microbiota Food Health, 2012. 31(4): p. 103-8.

 

440.Wang, Y., et al., Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline on monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in a rat model. Respir Res, 2011. 12: p. 26.

 

441.Wang, Q.J., et al., Therapeutic effects of hydrogen saturated saline on rat diabetic model and insulin resistant model via reduction of oxidative stress. Chin Med J (Engl), 2012. 125(9): p. 1633-7.

 

442.Yang, X., et al., Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline in preeclampsia rat model. Placenta, 2011. 32(9): p. 681-6.

 

443.Yeunhwa GU, K.O., Taigo FUj, Yuka ITOKAWA, et al., Anti Type 2 Diabetic Effect and Anti-oxidation Effect in Active Hydrogen Water Administration KK-Ay Mice. Medicine and Biology, 2006. 150(11): p. 384-392.

 

444.Yu, P., et al., Hydrogen-rich medium protects human skin fibroblasts from high glucose or mannitol induced oxidative damage. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2011. 409(2): p. 350-5.

 

445.Yu, Y.S. and H. Zheng, Chronic hydrogen-rich saline treatment reduces oxidative stress and attenuates left ventricular hypertrophy in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Mol Cell Biochem, 2012. 365(1-2): p. 233-42.

 

446.Zheng, H. and Y.S. Yu, Chronic hydrogen-rich saline treatment attenuates vascular dysfunction in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Biochemical Pharmacology, 2012. 83(9): p. 1269-77.

 

447.Zong, C., et al., Administration of hydrogen-saturated saline decreases plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and improves high-density lipoprotein function in high-fat diet-fed hamsters. Metabolism, 2012. 61(6): p. 794-800.

 

448.Yokoyama, J.-m.K.a.K., Effects of alkaline ionized water on spontaneously diabetic GK-rats fed sucrose. Korea. J. of Lab. Anim Sa, 1997. 13(2): p. 187-190.

Pain Studies

449.Chen, Y., et al., H Treatment Attenuated Pain Behavior and Cytokine Release Through the HO-1/CO Pathway in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain. Inflammation, 2015.

 

450.Chen, Q., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline attenuated neuropathic pain by reducing oxidative stress. Can J Neurol Sci, 2013. 40(6): p. 857-63.

 

451.Ge, Y., et al., Intrathecal Infusion of Hydrogen-Rich Normal Saline Attenuates Neuropathic Pain via Inhibition of Activation of Spinal Astrocytes and Microglia in Rats. PLoS One, 2014. 9(5): p. e97436.

 

452.Guan, Z., et al., Effects of vitamin C, vitamin E, and molecular hydrogen on the placental function in trophoblast cells. Arch Gynecol Obstet, 2015.

 

453.Kawaguchi, M., et al., Molecular hydrogen attenuates neuropathic pain in mice. PLoS One, 2014. 9(6): p. e100352.

 

454.Koseki, S. and K. Itoh, Fundamental properties of electrolyzed water. Journal of the Japanese Society for Food Science and Technology-Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi, 2000. 47(5): p. 390-393.

 

455.Li, F.Y., et al., Consumption of hydrogen-rich water protects against ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced nephrotoxicity and early tumor promotional events in rats. Food Chem Toxicol, 2013. 61: p. 248-54.

456.Morita, C., T. Nishida, and K. Ito, Biological toxicity of acid electrolyzed functional water: effect of oral administration on mouse digestive tract and changes in body weight. Arch Oral Biol, 2011. 56(4): p. 359-66.

 

457.Sakai, T., et al., Consumption of water containing over 3.5 mg of dissolved hydrogen could improve vascular endothelial function. Vasc Health Risk Manag, 2014. 10: p. 591-7.

 

458.Tsubone, H., et al., Effect of Treadmill Exercise and Hydrogen-rich Water Intake on Serum Oxidative and Anti-oxidative Metabolites in Serum of Thoroughbred Horses. J Equine Sci, 2013. 24(1): p. 1-8.

 

459.Wang, W.N., et al., [Regulative effects of hydrogen-rich medium on monocytic adhesion and vascular endothelial permeability]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi, 2013. 93(43): p. 3467-9.

 

460.Yahagi, N., et al., Effect of electrolyzed water on wound healing. Artificial Organs, 2000. 24(12): p. 984-987.

 

461.Zhao, S., et al., Therapeutic effects of hydrogen-rich solution on aplastic anemia in vivo. Cell Physiol Biochem, 2013. 32(3): p. 5

Safety studies

476.Jung, H.S., et al., Evaluate of Electrochemical Characteristics in Electrolyzed Reduced Water. Korean J. Microscopy, 2008. 38(4): p. 321-324.

 

477.Kayar, S.R., E.C. Parker, and A.L. Harbin, Metabolism and thermoregulation in guinea pigs in hyperbaric hydrogen: Effects of pressure. Journal of Thermal Biology, 1997. 22(1): p. 31-41.

 

478.Lee, K.J., et al., The immunological effects of electrolyzed reduced water on the Echinostoma hortense infection in C57BL/6 mice. Biol Pharm Bull, 2009. 32(3): p. 456-62.

 

479.Merne, M.E., K.J. Syrjanen, and S.M. Syrjanen, Systemic and local effects of long-term exposure to alkaline drinking water in rats. Int J Exp Pathol, 2001. 82(4): p. 213-9.

 

480.Ni, X.X., et al., Protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline on decompression sickness in rats. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, 2011. 82(6): p. 604-9.

 

481.Saitoh, Y., et al., Biological safety of neutral-pH hydrogen-enriched electrolyzed water upon mutagenicity, genotoxicity and subchronic oral toxicity. Toxicology and Industrial Health, 2010. 26(4): p. 203-216.

 

482.Sumiyoshi, K., Abstracts from the Functional Water Symposium ‘96 Held at Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan, November 28 and 29, 1996. Artificial Organs, 1997. 21: p. 1222-1226.

 

483.Unknown, Navy Studies Hydrogen as Breathing Gas. Design News, 1973. 28(15): p. 22-22.

 

484.Watanabe, T., Y. Kishikawa, and W. Shirai, Influence of alkaline ionized water on rat erythrocyte hexokinase activity and myocardium. J Toxicol Sci, 1997. 22(2): p. 141-52.

 

485.Watanabe, T. and Y. Kishikawa, Degradation of myocardiac myosin and creatine kinase in rats given alkaline ionized water. J Vet Med Sci, 1998. 60(2): p. 245-50.

 

486.Watanabe, T., et al., Influences of alkaline ionized water on milk yield, body weight of offspring and perinatal dam in rats. J Toxicol Sci, 1998. 23(5): p. 365-71.

 

487.Watanabe, T., et al., Histopathological influence of alkaline ionized water on myocardial muscle of mother rats. J Toxicol Sci, 1998. 23(5): p. 411-7.

 

488.Watanabe, T., et al., Influences of alkaline ionized water on milk electrolyte concentrations in maternal rats. J Toxicol Sci, 2000. 25(5): p. 417-22.

 

489.Yoon, Y.S., et al., The melamine excretion effect of the electrolyzed reduced water in melamine-fed mice. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2011. 49(8): p. 1814-9.

 

490.Yamagishi, Y., et al., Hepatotoxicity of sub-nanosized platinum particles in mice. Pharmazie, 2013. 68(3): p. 178-82.

 

491.Yamagishi, Y., et al., Acute and chronic nephrotoxicity of platinum nanoparticles in mice. Nanoscale Res Lett, 2013. 8(1): p. 395.

Sepsis, Gastritis and Intestine Studies

492.Anami, S., K. Saegusa, and M. Nishikata, Effect of glutamine or alkaline ionized water on late diarrhea induced by irinotecan hydrochloride in Gunn rats. . Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2009. 4(2): p. 96-105.

 

493.Buchholz, B.M., et al., Hydrogen inhalation ameliorates oxidative stress in transplantation induced intestinal graft injury. Am J Transplant, 2008. 8(10): p. 2015-2024.

 

494.Buchholz, B.M., et al., Hydrogen-enriched preservation protects the isogeneic intestinal graft and amends recipient gastric function during transplantation. Transplantation, 2011. 92(9): p. 985-92.

 

495.Chen, H.G., et al., Heme oxygenase-1 mediates the anti-inflammatory effect of molecular hydrogen in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Int J Surg, 2013. 11(10): p. 1060-6.

 

496.He, J., et al., Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline on ulcerative colitis rat model. Journal of Surgical Research, 2013(0).

 

497.Jin, D.K., Dong-Heui ; Teng, Yung-Chien ; Xufeng, Qi ; Lee, Kyu-Jae The Effect of Mineral-induced Alkaline Reduced Water on the DSS-induced Acute inflammatory Bowel Disease Mouse Model. Korean Journal of Microscopy, 2008. 38(2): p. 81-87.

 

498.Jin, Y., et al., Hydrogen May Be Used as a Treatment for Stress-Induced Gastric Ulceration. Med. Hypotheses Res, 2011. 7: p. 43-47.

 

499.Kajiya, M., et al., Hydrogen mediates suppression of colon inflammation induced by dextran sodium sulfate. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2009: p. in press.

 

500.Li, G.M., et al., Effects of hydrogen-rich saline treatment on polymicrobial sepsis. Journal of Surgical Research, 2013. 181(2): p. 279-86.

 

501.Liu, X., et al., The protective of hydrogen on stress-induced gastric ulceration. Int Immunopharmacol, 2012. 13(2): p. 197-203.

 

502.McCarty, M.F., Potential ghrelin-mediated benefits and risks of hydrogen water. Med Hypotheses, 2015. 84(4): p. 350-5.

 

503.Naito, Y., et al., Chronic administration with electrolyzed alkaline water inhibits aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats through the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 2002. 32: p. 69-81.

 

504.Nishimura, N., et al., Colonic hydrogen generated from fructan diffuses into the abdominal cavity and reduces adipose mRNA abundance of cytokines in rats. J Nutr, 2013. 143(12): p. 1943-9.

 

505.Pilcher, J.E., Senn on the Diagnosis of Gastro-Intestinal Perforation by the Rectal Insufflation of Hydrogen Gas. Annals of Surgery, 1888. 8(3): p. 190-204.

 

506.Senn, N., RECTAL INSUFFLATION OF HYDROGEN GAS AN INFALLIBLE TEST IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF VISCERAL INJURY OF THE GASTRO INTESTINAL CANAL IN PENETRATING WOUNDS OF THE ABDOMEN. Read in the Section on Surgery, at the Thirty-ninth Annual Meeting of the American Medical Association, May, 9, 1888, and illuistrated by three experiments on dogs.”. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 1888. 10(25): p. 767-777.

 

507.Sheng, Q., et al., Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline on necrotizing enterocolitis in neonatal rats. J Pediatr Surg, 2013. 48(8): p. 1697-706.

 

508.Shigeta, T., et al., Luminal injection of hydrogen-rich solution attenuates intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Transplantation, 2015. 99(3): p. 500-7.

 

509.Vorobjeva, N.V., Selective stimulation of the growth of anaerobic microflora in the human intestinal tract by electrolyzed reducing water. Med Hypotheses, 2005. 64(3): p. 543-6.

 

510.Xie, K.L., et al., [Effects of hydrogen gas inhalation on serum high mobility group box 1 levels in severe septic mice]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban, 2010. 39(5): p. 454-7.

 

511.Xie, K.L., et al., Protective effects of hydrogen gas on murine polymicrobial sepsis via reducing oxidative stress and HMGB1 release. Shock, 2010. 34(1): p. 90-97.

 

512.Xie, K., et al., Combination therapy with molecular hydrogen and hyperoxia in a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis. Shock, 2012. 38(6): p. 656-63.

 

513.Xie, K., et al., Nrf2 is critical in the protective role of hydrogen gas against murine polymicrobial sepsis. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 2012. 108(3): p. 538-539.

 

514.Xie, K., et al., Hydrogen gas presents a promising therapeutic strategy for sepsis. Biomed Res Int, 2014. 2014: p. 807635.

 

515.Xue, J., et al., Dose-dependent inhibition of gastric injury by hydrogen in alkaline electrolyzed drinking water. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2014. 14(1): p. 81.

 

516.Zhang, J.Y., et al., Protective role of hydrogen-rich water on aspirin-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats. World J Gastroenterol, 2014. 20(6): p. 1614-22.

Skin & Radiation Studies

517.Chuai, Y., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates radiation-induced male germ cell loss in mice through reducing hydroxyl radicals. Biochemical Journal, 2012. 442(1): p. 49-56.

 

518.Chuai, Y., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline protects spermatogenesis and hematopoiesis in irradiated BALB/c mice. Med Sci Monit, 2012. 18(3): p. BR89-94.

 

519.Guo, S.X., et al., Beneficial effects of hydrogen-rich saline on early burn-wound progression in rats. PLoS One, 2015. 10(4): p. e0124897.

 

520.Ignacio, R.M., et al., The Drinking Effect of Hydrogen Water on Atopic Dermatitis Induced by Dermatophagoides farinae Allergen in NC/Nga Mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2013. 2013: p. 538673.

 

521.Ignacio, R.M., et al., The balneotherapy effect of hydrogen reduced water on UVB-mediated skin injury in hairless mice. Molecular & Cellular Toxicology, 2013. 9(1): p. 15-21.

 

522.Jiang, Z., et al., Protection by hydrogen against gamma ray-induced testicular damage in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol, 2013. 112(3): p. 186-91.

 

523.Kato, S., et al., Hydrogen-rich electrolyzed warm water represses wrinkle formation against UVA ray together with type-I collagen production and oxidative-stress diminishment in fibroblasts and cell-injury prevention in keratinocytes. J Photochem Photobiol B, 2012. 106: p. 24-33.

 

524.Kitamura, T., H. Todo, and K. Sugibayashi, Effect of several electrolyzed waters on the skin permeation of lidocaine, benzoic Acid, and isosorbide mononitrate. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 2009. 35(2): p. 145-53.

 

525.Liu, Y.Q., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates skin ischemia/reperfusion induced apoptosis via regulating Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and ASK-1/JNK pathway. Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, 2015.

 

526.Ostojic, S.M., Eumelanin-driven production of molecular hydrogen: A novel element of skin defense? Med Hypotheses, 2015. (skin)

 

527.Qian, L.R., et al., Radioprotective effect of hydrogen in cultured cells and mice. Free Radic Res, 2010. 44(3): p. 275-282.

 

528.Qian, L.R., et al., Hydrogen-rich PBS protects cultured human cells from ionizing radiation-induced cellular damage. Nuclear Technology & Radiation Protection, 2010. 25(1): p. 23-29.

 

529.Wang, X., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline resuscitation alleviates inflammation induced by severe burn with delayed resuscitation. Burns, 2015. 41(2): p. 379-85.

 

530.Wei, L., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline protects retina against glutamate-induced excitotoxic injury in guinea pig. Experimental Eye Research, 2012. 94(1): p. 117-27.

 

531.Yang, Y., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline protects immunocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis. Med Sci Monit, 2012. 18(4): p. BR144-8.

 

532.Yang, Y., et al., Molecular hydrogen protects human lymphocyte AHH-1 cells against C heavy ion radiation. International Journal of Radiation Biology, 2013.

 

533.Yoon, K.S., et al., Histological study on the effect of electrolyzed reduced water-bathing on UVB radiation-induced skin injury in hairless mice. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2011. 34(11): p. 1671-7.

 

534.Yoon, Y.S., et al., Positive Effects of hydrogen water on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. Biol Pharm Bull, 2014. 37(9): p. 1480-5.

 

535.Yu, W.T., et al., Hydrogen-enriched water restoration of impaired calcium propagation by arsenic in primary keratinocytes. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 2013. 77: p. 342-348.

 

536.Zhao, L., et al., Hydrogen protects mice from radiation induced thymic lymphoma in BALB/c mice. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 2011. 7(3): p. 297-300.

 

537.Zhao, S., et al., Protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline against radiation-induced immune dysfunction. J Cell Mol Med, 2014. 18(5): p. 938-46.

Spine and Pancreas Studies

538.Chen, C.W., et al., Hydrogen-Rich Saline Protects Against Spinal Cord Injury in Rats. Neurochemical Research, 2010. 35(7): p. 1111-1118.

 

539.Chen, H., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline ameliorates the severity of L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2010. 393(2): p. 308-313.

 

540.Hong, Y., S. Chen, and J.M. Zhang, [Research advances on hydrogen therapy in nervous system diseases]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban, 2010. 39(6): p. 638-43.

 

541.Ren, J., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline reduces the oxidative stress and relieves the severity of trauma-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. J Trauma Acute Care Surg, 2012. 72(6): p. 1555-61.

 

542.Ren, J.D., et al., Hydrogen-rich saline inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation and attenuates experimental acute pancreatitis in mice. Mediators Inflamm, 2014. 2014: p. 930894.

 

543.Zhang, D.Q. and J.H. Zhu, [Experimental studies of effects of hydrogen-rich saline in rats with severe acute pancreatitis]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi, 2012. 92(34): p. 2436-40.

 

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